AACC International Meeting October 5-8, 2014 
Poster Presentation Ingredients
Gel from ground chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as hydrocolloid for wheat bread production

V. Zettel (1), A. Krämer (1), F. Hecker (1), B. HITZMANN (1)
(1) University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany

Doughs with 1 to 3 % gel from ground chia with 5 g/g and 10 g/g water respectively were prepared and analysed. The dough samples with 2 % ground chia mixed with 5 g/g water or 1 % ground chia mixed with 10 g/g water behave in different experiments similar to each other. This could be explained by the same amount of additional water as for both samples a dough yield of 170 is used. Maximum resistance (Rmax) was measured using a texture analyser and decreases with increasing dough yield (R²=0.98) and therewith chia content (R²=0.72). Rheofermentometer measurements show no significant difference in the gaseous release time, but an increased dough height with different amounts of chia, indicating a higher extensibility. The evolution of the curves of the samples with added chia until 40 min is similar to dough without chia reaching its maximum after 40 min, indicating an invariant CO2 production rate regardless the chia gel concentration. Frequency sweep measurements show decreasing values for the storage as well as the loss module with increasing chia gel content. Best results in the baking experiments were achieved with 2 % ground chia mixed with 5 g/g water or 1 % ground chia mixed with 10 g/g water as the volume yield increased up to 24 % with respect to the standard wheat bread (R²=0.94, excluding 3 % chia). The bread quality was improved with respect to storage as the crumb firmness measured with a texture analyser was reduced up to 36 % compared to the breads without added chia gel.

AACC International 2013 Annual Meeting
Poster Presentation
Engineering & Processing
Properties of extruded chia-corn meal puffs 

J. A. BYARS (1), M. Singh (1), G. E. Inglett (1), S. X. Liu (1) 
(1) USDA ARS, Peoria, IL, U.S.A. 

Chia seeds contain about 30% oil, and about 60% of the fatty acid content is omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid. The objectives of this work were to examine the properties of extruded corn meal puffs containing chia. Mixtures of corn meal and chia seeds (0-20%) were processed in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder at different moisture contents (16-22%) and final heating zone temperatures (120-160 °C). Extrusion processing provides a simple method for grinding the seeds, which is necessary for making the fatty acids available. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that a large amount of the fatty acids were incorporated into helical inclusion complexes with amylose from the starch, which has been shown to help prevent oxidation. The expansion of cylindrical extrudates decreased with increasing chia content and with increasing final heating zone temperature. The hardness of the extrudates increased with increasing chia content. The fatty acid profile of oil extracted from the extrudates was not affected by the processing temperature.

AACC International Meeting October 16-19, 2011
Meeting Abstract - Poster Presentation
Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

S. LIU (1), M. Singh (2)
(1) USDA ARS NCAUR, Peoria, IL, U.S.A.; (2) USDA ARS NCAUR Functional Foods Research Unit, Peoria, IL, U.S.A.
Cereal Foods World 56:A52

Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food-grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VDE 0530 centrifugal mill to produce a chia seed meal fraction that passes through size 60 sieve. The chia seed meal fraction was used as flour substitution in a cake formulation based on AACC Method 10-90. The Faringraph testing was conducted to measure optimal mixing time and optimal water absorption of mixtures of flour and water, incorporating 0, 5, 10, and 20% chia seed meal, respectively. The effects of chia seed meal substitution, mixing time, and water on properties of cake batter and cake were examined—batter viscosity, specific volume of batter, cake volume, crumbgrain, cake color, cake texture, moisture of cake, water activity of cake, and sensory evaluation. The optimal chia seed meal substitution based on these measurements was determined.

AACC International Meeting October 24-27, 2010
Meeting Abstract - Poster PresentationFormulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of corn tortillas supplemented with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour

R. RENDON-VILLALOBOS (1), G. Pacheco-Vargas (1), J. Islas-Hernandez (1)
(1) CEPROBI-IPN, Yautepec, Morelos, MEXICO
Cereal Foods World 55:A66

The purpose of the present study was to develop a tortilla formulation with good acceptability and evaluate the effects of chia seed flour supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the obtained tortillas. Chia seed were prepared as fine flour and used at different levels of Nixtamalized Corn Flour (NCF) substitution for corn tortilla formulations. The effects of chia seed flour supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of tortillas were evaluated using standard methods. Ash (08-01), fat (30-25) and protein content (46-13) were analyzed with AACC methods. In vitro rate of hydrolysis was evaluated using hog pancreatic α-amylase. Predicted Glycemic Index (pGI) was calculated from the α-amylolysis curves. The protein content (9.41 – 12.48%) was significantly affected (p < 0.001) with respect to the level of chia flour added to the tortilla. Ash contents varied from 1.29 – 1.76%, and non-significant differences (p > 0.05) between control tortillas and those containing chia seed flour. Tortillas with 5 g and 20 g/100 g chia flour showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The reduced enzymatic starch hydrolysis rate and pGI recorded for the chia seed-added tortilla indicated slow digestion features. The supplementation seems to be suited for NCF substitution and it is possible to obtain tortillas with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

AACC International Meeting September 13-16, 2009
Meeting Abstract - Poster Presentation
Nutritional and sensory evaluation of corn tortilla using chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.)

R. RENDON-VILLALOBOS (1), G. Pacheco-Vargas (1), J. Islas-Hernández (1), N. Astilleros-Rosas (2)
(1) CEPROBI-IPN, Yautepec, Morelos, MEXICO; (2) Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec, Mexico
Cereal Foods World 54:A62

The objective of this work was to develop nutritionally enhanced tortillas by incorporating an ingredient with well-documented nutritional functionality (chia seed) in a corn tortilla formulation in the ratios 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 (w/w), in an attempt to create a low-glycemic index (GI) and fibre-rich product while preserving sensory acceptability and physicochemical properties. Total dietary fiber (TDF) (AOAC method 985.29), ash (08-01), fat (30-25) and protein content (46-13) were analyzed with AACC methods. Total starch, in vitro rate of hydrolysis and predicted GI (pGI) were evaluated. Fresh tortillas were evaluated in a sensory evaluation laboratory for color, flavor, taste, aroma intensity and general acceptability on a 3 point hedonic scale. A panel of seventeen judges (untrained but familiar with corn tortillas) was used. Ash contents varied from 1.29 – 1.76%, and non-significant differences (p >0.05) between control tortillas and those containing chia seed flour. An increase in the protein content (9.41–12.48%) was observed with respect to the level of chia seed added to the tortilla. The amount of lipids in the chia seed-added tortilla increased approximately 76%. A significant increase (p < 0.001) in the TDF content was also obtained with the chia seed-flour addition (approximately 56%). The reduced enzymatic starch hydrolysis rate and pGI recorded for the chia seed-added tortilla indicated slow digestion features. Sensory evaluation did not show significant (p > 0.05) differences in the organoleptic among tortillas. Owing to increase in the TDF, lower digestion and pGI values, chia seed-added tortilla can be considered as a nutraceutical food. Therefore, the newly developed tortilla supplemented with chia seed flour, could represent a valuable staple in improving the nutritional value of the original food product.

Meeting Abstract - Poster Presentation

The influence of adding chia flour and vita-gluten on the technological quality and shelf life of bread loaves
P. Luna Pizarro (2), A. Silva Coelho (1), N. Sammán (2), M. Dupas Hubinger (3), Y. CHANG (1)
(1) Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Brazil; (2) Faculty of Engineering, National University of Jujuy, Argentine; (3) Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Brazil
Cereal Foods World 53:A68

The current trend in nutrition indicates the importance of incorporating into the diet essential fatty acids and dietary fiber; the seed of chia fulfills these conditions. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a seed native to middle America characterized by a high alpha linolenic acid content (w3 = 61 g/100 g lipids) and high protein content (21.6 g/100 g chia, d.w.b.), and thus its addition to bread is currently being studied. The objective of the present work was to study the addition of chia flour in combination with vita-gluten (3-0.6, 17-0.6, 3-3.4, 17-3.4, 0-2, 20-2, 10-0, 10-4, 10-2%), to wheat flour and determine the influence on the technological quality and shelf life of bread loaves. The loaves were produced by the direct dough method, using a 22 complete factorial design, and the respective mathematical models were obtained and the response surfaces for each variable evaluated. Volume, moisture content, compression force and color were studied during the shelf life of 1, 4 and 7 days of storage. The response surfaces showed that the specific volume did not present significant variation up to 10% of chia flour content. With respect to moisture content, the values remained practically constant during storage, increasing with increasing concentration of chia flour, from 17 to 20%. High levels of chia flour decreased the hue angle values (H*), and the values for L* showed the same tendency. Nevertheless the color of the loaves did not change during storage. The compression force was affected by the addition of chia flour and vita-gluten, the best responses and crumb texture quality of the loaves being obtained with lower chia flour and vita-gluten contents. The results showed that the substitution of up to 10% of the wheat flour with chia flour presented acceptable technological characteristics in the elaboration of bread loaves.